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Fluid Bed Dryer: The Ultimate Guide for Importers

Fluid Bed Dryer

I know importing the right fluid bed dryer can be an overwhelming task.

But why?

Because there are many things you need to consider and this information is not available on the public domain.

Take for example, the working principle, critical parts, technical specification, advantages, classification, design and construction of fluid bed dryers.

The best part?

I am going to walk you through all these critical aspects.

And, by the end of it all you will be able to import the right fluid bed dryer equipment.

Now, let’s get to that.

Chapter 1: What is a Fluid Bed Dryer?

There is a high likelihood that an average consumer has never even heard about this machine.

That aside, in the domain of bulk processing, it is undoubtedly one of the most significant and reliable equipment.

So what is it?

It refers to equipment used in granulation process to dry the specific material in a bid of attaining desirable moisture content in the tablet formulation grains.

Mainly, it is mostly used in the pharmaceutical sector to help in reducing the level of moisture content in the pharmaceutical grains or powder.

This machine is also typical and widely used in a wide range of chemical, dairy, dyes and food preparation among other processing industries.

Arguably, it is available in these industries for a comparatively long period owing to the role that it plays in particular applications.

Nonetheless, the fluid bed dryers which were common in the old days have undergone a considerable transformation.

Integrating technological advancements in several aspects of this machine has thus, ensured that the modern ones offer better quality and high efficiency.

What’s important in this machine is the fact that it provides high drying proficiency given that the granules or particles get completely dry.

It thus shows that you’ll end up attaining best results which is ideal as it helps in enhancing production in the particular industries.

This equipment generally works on the basis of fluidization of the feed materials principle.

Don’t worry about this principle; we will discuss it more in-depth in the subsequent sections of this guide.



Also, remember that this machine significantly helps in providing quality products that meet the industrial standards.

And that’s the reason you need to ensure that you get one that suits all your needs if attaining efficiency is anything to go by.

Other than that, let’s now swiftly move to the next chapter and look at the fundamental reasons that make a fluid bed dryer necessary equipment.

Chapter 2: Why You Need Fluidized Bed Drying Equipment

Traditionally, you’d require much time and effort to dry your granules, especially for pharmaceutical purposes.

Therefore, there was need to develop better material drying equipment.

And after years of research, a fluid bed dryers were developed.

But, why do you need it?

· For Uniform Drying of Materials

It meant that you’d dry the grains in a tray, which unfortunately wouldn’t even yield consistent drying conditions.

You won’t necessarily have to worry about some particles containing more moisture than other after drying on this device.

It is apparently one of the reasons you need it since consistency in drying conditions also enhances the quality of the end product.

· Reduce Drying Material Drying Time

Basically, you need this equipment first and foremost to reduce time wastage while waiting for the grains to dry up.

In general, you end up spending less time to get ideal moisture content on the pharmaceutical grain.

The significance of this is that it enhances faster and voluminous production.

· It’s a Multifunctional Machine

The fluid bed dryer also gives you the opportunity to carry out multiple functions on one standing.

In point of fact, you can use this device to heat, cool, dry and coat the various elements at ago.

Isn’t this amazing?

Undoubtedly it is adding to the fact that at the end of the day you also tend to get desirable results within the shortest time possible.

The point here is that it prevents you from what would sound like unnecessary processes trying to carry out these different tasks separately.

A good example is fluid bed dryer granulator and coater.

Obviously, you need to modify the fluid bed equipment a little to accommodate all these functions.

SaintyCo DPL Fluid Bed Dryer Granulator and Coater

SaintyCo Fluid Bed Dryer Granulator and Coater

What do I mean here?

In traditional methods, it would be somewhat challenging to find a machine that you can use for heating, cooling, drying and coating all at the same time.

So you’d primarily hope from one machine to the other to complete all these processes.

And, that is the pain that the fluid bed dryer now relives you from – making it a necessity in the bulk processing industry.

Furthermore, you also need machine because in many cases, you tend to find the customized unit.

Look here:

This is vital given that when you get one which is tailored to suit your needs, you’ll certainly use it precisely to solve all your granule drying needs.

Basically, the fluid bed dryer gives you the opportunity to automate all the drying conditions that you require within your production plant.

You won’t indulge in a wide range of processes that would rather waste much of your time and ultimately produce low-quality products.

That is a forgone case.

This equipment relieves you from all these mechanical procedures by just a simple button press.

Furthermore, the features are easy to fix, detach and require low maintenance level.

Of course, you’ll need some professional assistance when needs arise,but you can as well operate it without much difficulty.

The best part?

Fluid bed dryer equipment makes processing materials easier and simpler.

What it means here is that you’ll not have to worry about the performance and the result of the product once it’s operating.

Dried powder

Dried powder

You’re guaranteed of getting the best result during and after the drying process as a result of the efficiency it exhibits.

And that’s primarily the reasons that make acquiring this particular machine an ideal necessity for you.

Nonetheless, let’s now look at the different aspects revolving around the design and construction of fluid bed dryer in this next chapter.

Chapter 3: Fluid Bed Dryer Design and Construction

This equipment consists of numerous components assembled together to provide a continuous process in drying pharmaceutical granules.

The truth is:

It cannot complete the process without some of the parts which form a significant basis of the machine.

Here is an example of fluid bed dryer equipment:

Fluid bed dryer equipment

Fluid Bed dryer equipment

And that’s why it is of more interest to understand all these components and the specific roles they play in making sure the process becomes a success.

Of course, we cannot discuss all the components of this machine.

But in this section, I will take you through some of the notable parts and explain them briefly to get a rough idea of what they entail.

Later on, we also find out some of the standard design options available for this drying equipment.

This is also essential as it helps you to get useful idea especially when it comes to shopping for one.

3.1. Main Fluid Bed Dryer Parts and Components

Our primary focus in this section is to discuss and understand some of the parts and components of the fluid bed dryer machine.

But before we look at these parts, it’s important to mention that different fluid bed dryers have a varying number of elements.

Some have more whereas other have a few.

It depends on several factors such as the specific design of the equipment, size as well as the need for additional requirements.

Comparing fluid bed dryers

Comparing two types of fluid bed dryers

Nevertheless, they all serve the same purpose albeit to different extents.

So you shouldn’t necessarily worry that perhaps one with fewer parts would not be ideal for the task.

So let’s start straightaway;

· Product container

It is one of the most critical components of a fluid bed dryer.

In most cases, this part is often made of hard materials such as stainless steel to prevent it from wearing out faster.

You’ll find that an ideal product container somewhat takes a conical shape.

It is vital because this shape helps in enhancing better fluidization.

In most cases, it needs to have a plate that allows for air distribution to make it possible for the process to be efficient.

Product container for a fluid bed dryer

Product container for a fluid bed dryer

Moreover, the product container varies from one fluid bed dryer to the other depending on size.

And so if it is about the size factor, you need to ensure that you find the equipment that has ideal size for your needs.

· Control cabinet and panel

This component is equally crucial in this equipment.

It is the pillar that determines execution of all the processes in this machine.

Fundamentally, the control cabinet and panel allows you to send and receive process signals accordingly.

Its importance is that it makes it possible for you or any other operator for that matter to control all the parameters revolving around material processing effectively.

You see.

This equipment in computerized.

Therefore, the control panel enables you to merely click the appropriate button for a specific task.

Control cabinet for a fluid bed dryer

Control cabinet for a fluid bed dryer

So this integrated control system is helpful in making sure that the quality of the product is consistent in meeting various specifications.

It is also essential since it helps in keeping you alert just in any case an unlikely event such emergency arises and requires immediate attention.

· Exhaust blower

An exhaust blower, in this case, refers to a component that this equipment uses in expending contaminated fumes and hot air away.

The role of this component is to allow you to breathe relatively clean air.

Substantially, the fumes and hot gas during material processing can prevent you operating the machine efficiently.

Some particles would also emit noxious gases that would chock you throughout hence making you quite uncomfortable.

See position of the blower

See the position of the blower – Photo courtesy: Applied Chemicals

So the exhauster blower then plays a considerable role in making sure that such gases do not stay anywhere in the vicinity.

· Air preparation unit

Ordinarily, this unit refers to the system used in bettering the quality of compressed air which feeds into the fluid bed dryer.

This component helps in enhancing the flow rate of air which subsequently results to better air supply performance.

Air preparation unit

Air preparation unit

Mostly, this unit is ideal for this equipment as it makes it possible for it to control the flow of compressed air.

The air preparation unit often contains filters for getting rid of moisture in the compressed air.

Also, it comprises regulator for controlling air pressure getting into pneumatic systems.

Moreover, this component also has a lubricator which enables it to oil the moving parts and seals hence enhancing its overall lifespan.

· Spraying nozzle

This refers to a component that breaks the fluid flow apart into a spray pattern.

Different fluidized bed materials have different spray nozzles.

In fact, the specific type of application is what ideally determines the type of spraying nozzle the equipment will have.

But at the same time, you also need to know that this component plays an essential role in determining the quality of the final product.

In general, spraying nozzles come in different designs.

Pressure, rotating, airless and gas atomizing are some of the common spraying nozzle designs.

Spraying nozzle

Spraying nozzle

Fundamentally, you also need to understand that factoring in the variouselements when analyzing this component is critical.

So you need to be particular and analyze this fluid bed part in detail so that you can be certain that it indeed ideal for the application.

· Exhaust filter

This is primarily a component that helps in cleaning the filters which subsequently lead to improved processing yields.

In most of the fluidized bed dryers, they are often positioned just above the processing area.

Nonetheless, this could also vary depending on the design of the specific machine.

Filter position

Filter position – Photo courtesy: Saral Engineering

The exhaust filter is vital because it also enables a consistent product flow within the conical expansion chamber.

Now, this is significant because, at the end of it all, you’ll be able to attain the most homogenous and repeatable results.

· Air distribution plate

It is unquestionably one of the most fundamental components especially in facilitating the overall material processing.

In most of these machines, it is positioned at the lower side of the product container.

It is vital because it helps in distributing fluidizing air in between the internal and external partitions.

However, it is also vital to understand that air distribution plates come in different sizes and variations.

Of course, this also depends on the particular design of the machine.

But in general, the air distribution plate, especially for modern fluid bed dryers, are designed for cutting-edge technology.

Air distribution

Air distribution in fluid bed dryer by Hafiz Luqman Khalil

What this indicates is that it helps in enhancing appropriate fluidization of the granules or powder hence providing best granulation results.

· Solution delivery system

In some instances, it’s also known as a liquid delivery system.

The primary purpose of this component is to help in making sure that the solution gets into the atomizer relatively smoothly.

It consists of a magnetic filter, a liquid tank as well as a pump.

All these are useful in improving the efficiency of this component and ensuring that it performs at optimum level.

When purchasing a fluid bed dryer, it is vital to asses this particular part so that you can be sure of getting the best material processing efficiency.

Ordinarily, the solution delivery system tends to dispense singular or multiple thin coatings efficiently in one pass.

Again, like any other components, this one also varies from machine to another undoubtedly depending on the application of each one.

· Heating system

It refers to a kind of heater that heats the granules during material processing.

Ideally, during processing, particles often tend to pass through the filter first before getting to the heater for heating.

The heating system typically consists of various components such as gas furnace and electric steam radiator heater among others.

Heating section

Heating section

The heating system is located inside stainless steel tubes in the bed of fluidized bed dryer.

Generation of heat within this system occurs relatively fast and efficiently.

It is always imperative to ensure that the heated air goes through a high-efficiency filter before it gets into the drying chamber.

This helps in a great way to get a pure and high-quality final product.

· Dust collector

It is also another significant part of the fluid bed dryer.

The dust collector ordinarily, helps in reducing wastes and emissions while at the same time complying with the policies revolving around the environmental air.

This component removes suspended dust from the ambient air.

Now, this is helpful in improving the indoor air quality as well as reducing the outdoor emissions.

In fluid bed dryer, this component also plays a fundamental role in dust from the water vapor.

It consists of several parts including dust packet, exhaust pipe, cone pipe and cylinder.

Again, remember that this still varies from one machine to another depending on the design and other factors.


Technical drawing of a fluid bed dryer

Technical drawing of a fluid bed dryer

In bulk processing, it is highly likely that you can recycle the dust collected from this component either as raw material or any other use.

This way, it reduces disposal costs and quantity of waste.

3.2. Fluid Bed Dryer Diagram

Essentially, the fluidizer bed dryers come in different designs, of course depending on a wide range of factors.

More importantly, several parameters determine the particular design of a fluid bed dryer. Some of these parameters include

  • Volume
  • Heat transfer
  • Mobility
  • Efficiency, and compactness among others.

However, there is also a need for understanding that in many cases, the purpose and working principle always seem to be similar, design notwithstanding.

Nonetheless, it is essential to understand that the different designs play an enormous role when it comes to finding equipment that suits your needs precisely.

And it is the primary reason you’ll find most manufacturers designing your ideal fluid bed from unique materials such as stainless steel, Inconel among others.

There are also other aspects that make the design speciality stand out for particular material it’s meant to process.

For instance, the design for distributor plate in almost all of these types of the machine helps in ensuring even distribution of fluidizing gas across the bed’s surface.

Let’s compare just a few designs so that you may understand what I am talking about here:

SaintyCo Lab fluid bed dryer

SaintyCo fluid bed dryer

And this:

Fluid bed dryer granulator and coater

Fluid bed dryer granulator and coater

Another aspect regarding design is that in most of the machines, you hardly find one with moving parts that come in contact with the product.

What you need to know regarding the design option element is that they come in multifold.

You only need to determine what you probably think suits your particular needs.

Some of the various leading design options available for this type of equipment include;

i. Contact tubes and plates

ii. Explosion resistant design

iii. Recirculating contained gas design

iv. Stirred FBD

v. Multiple zones and stages

vi. Deep fluid beds

vii. Fully automated operation

viii. Integral drying/cooling

ix. High-temperature FBD

Now, with that in mind, let me take you a step further and see how this machine works.

Chapter 4: Working Principle of Fluid Bed Dryer for Drying Applications

Remember I promised you earlier about discussing the working principle of the fluid bed dryer machine.

And true to my promise.

This is the section we want to expound and know everything it entails.

Now, working principle, in this case inherently implies the manner in which this equipment functions.

In a layman’s language, it is the processes that this deviceundertakes in making sure that it dries up the pharmaceutical grains or any other particles for that matter.

But first, I want you to watch this video:

Also, have it mind that this working principle is specially for drying applications.

Of course, it is better to understand it since the principles might vary from one application to another.

Some terms would be a little bit technical.

Nonetheless, I will try to be as simple as possible, to ensure that you get the idea of what I’m talking about.

So let’s get straightaway to this concept:

Fundamentally, this equipment works on a principle of fluidization of the materials.

During this process, hot gas or air gets through the bed of compact particulates.

The gas then moves in the upward direction through the tiny spaces which are between these particles.

At this point, velocity increases, which in turn forces the particles to drag on upward direction on the granules at a stage which becomes equivalent to the force of gravitation that is underneath.

It then leads to fluidization of the bed which makes it possible for these granules to suspend in the fluid.

The fluid bed dryer consists of an electric motor which powers the fan inside it.

So what happens is that from the beginning of the process, the fan helps in sucking air inside from the surrounding.

This air gets extremely hot given that it transverses through a heating system inside the dryer.

It is this hot drying air that is forced to course through the bed which containing the moist particles put down on a continuously-vibrating perforated steel bed.

Air flows to the chamber

Air flows into the chamber

Now, the hot drying air gets into the bed with constant velocity and temperature that makes it possible for fluidization of the bed.

It happens that this pressure allows for intimate contact with every granule particle with the hot drying air.

The vibration or continuous shaking of the porous steel bed triggers the bed to carry the particles forward at a slow pace along the dryer’s dimension.

Hot air in the chamber

Hot air in the chamber

The hot air then sucks all the moisture present in granulates.

After that, it gets into the dust recovery system where it’s recycling takes place and for another purpose in the same process.

Ideally, what happens here is that as the flow of increases inside the steel bed, the more it enlarges and grains begin a turbulent motion.

So the constant contact with makes it possible for the material to get dry.

After that, the air that leaves this equipment passes through the filter to allow for the collection of fine granular materials.

It is possible to control the velocity and temperature of the hot air as they pass on the bed.

What this implies is that this machine can as well dry the extremely wet materials effectively.

The next thing that happens is feeding the dry material into the cooling zone the cool air lowers the temperature of the material to the specific required condition.

Drying process

Drying process

One fundamental aspect of the fluid bed dryer worth underlining more and more is that it has a high rate of drying materials, which also take the shortest time possible.

Thus in this manner, you can attain efficient drying of powder or product with the aid of a fluid bed dryer equipment.

Actually, the principle is as simple as that.

It, not rocket science as you try to imagine. Just basic concepts that if you use the equipment a few times, you’ll quickly notice.

Hopefully, the working principle of FBD is understandable.

If so, then let’s get to the next chapter and find out more about the parameters of this equipment and their effects on the end product.

Chapter 5: Fluid Bed Dryer Parameters & How theyAffect the Final Product

Here’s a fact;

To enhance fluid bed dryer’s efficiency, operation as well as reproducibility, there are quite a number of parameters that must be controlled.

Remember this is a technology which involves removal of a certain extent of moisture from the grain particles by fluidization process.

And so most definitely, this process has to also involve the parameters especially about gas flow and other constructional parameters.

In this section, we want to look at some of these parameters and discuss them to get a better understanding of their effects on the final product.

To start with, these parameters are categorized into three main elements;

Apparatus, Process and Product.

It is also essential to know that this categorization is helpful in ensuring better comprehension to control each parameter.

So let’s start with the apparatus parameters;

1. Air distribution plate

Fundamentally, there is a need of attaining desirable air flow within the desired temperature.

This is where the position of the air distribution plate becomes vital.

It’s positioning needs to be in such a manner that makes it possible for it to obtain the necessary airflow and heating temperature.

You see:

In any case, the air distribution plate is placed within a close range to the blower outlet, it is highly unlikely for the desired temperature to be attained.

See the porous plate

See the porous plate – image courtesy: TRUNDLBED

So primarily, the positioning of the distribution plate, in the long run, helps in determining the pattern of the final product.

And that’s majorly why it is an important parameter worth controlling during the fluidization process.

2. The shape of the product container

This is also an essential parameter worth controlling.

You see, the fluid bed dryers tend to have different shapes.

Now, these containers help in holding the grain particles together while still in the process.

Given that temperature and velocity varies, it means that the shape of the container will certainly determine the shape and size of the end product.

Product container

Product container

In most instances, equipment with an annular based design will always provide a relatively better product.

So in general, it would be ideal to understand the particular shape of the instrument if at all you need to get the best results out of this process.

3. Type and position of the spraying nozzle

The kind of spraying nozzle and its positioning on this fluid bed dryer is also a critical aspect worth noting.

This is even more specific when it comes to using this equipment to coat the materials and not necessarily for drying.

The essence is that it helps in determining whether or not the solution will become dry fast before it reaches to the tablet.

Position of the spraying nozzle

Position of the spraying nozzle

Therefore, in any event, that you need the atomized solution for the coating to get to the granular, it would be necessary if the nozzle height is adjusted accordingly.

Those mentioned above are the apparatus parameters.

Technically they have an effect on the final product on the basis of the physical aspect of the equipment.

Now, let’s look at the second category which is processor operating parameters;

4. Pressure operation

The pressure operationaffects the final product both positively and negatively.

But ideally, the discharge of air via the blower should necessarily be at optimum level.

What happens is that in such cases, the moisture content available on the grain particles reduces comparatively fast when the pressure operation is higher.

Again, the high-pressure operation also makes the particles to fluidize easily.

This leads to the likelihood of comfortable carriage of mass and heat transfers.

Material from fluid bed dryer

Material from fluid bed dryer

Increase in pressure operation may also result to increase in the size of a bubble in the bed.

Nonetheless, the pressure operation is also quite concerned with elements to do with mass and heat transfer that takes place at the fluidized bed.

Another important aspect regarding this parameter is that it dominates the performance of the fluid bed dryer more than temperature does.

5. Temperature

It is the other operating parameter of this equipment worth controlling.

The fact is that the inlet temperature is inversely proportionate to the duration of drying.

The resident temperature of the bed is the significant factor that determines the drying rate.

During the drying process, the air temperature also affects the moisture diffusion.

It happens that the particles tend to absorb more water at high temperatures than at lower temperatures.

Warm air moving into a fluid bed dryer

Warm air flowing into fluid bed dryer

Mostly, when temperatures are high, moisture diffusivity also tends to increase.

This then results in decreased drying time and increased drying rate.

This,therefore, increases the rate of evaporation.

It is also worth noting that the nature of material also plays a considerable role in determining the choice of operating temperature.

6. Humidity

It is also an essential operating parameter of fluid bed dryer that plays an indispensable role during the drying process.

Similar to temperature, air humidity also has inverse effects on the drying process.

It should primarily be as low as possible if faster drying rate has to be achieved.

Additionally, the moisture present in the inlet air has extreme effects on temperature profile and rate of evaporation.

Process of heating air

Process of heating air

It is possible to reduce moisture from the particles by maintaining the particles diameter to be less.

This is because comparatively, large size particles tend to contain relatively long diffusional paths.

This is critical because it makes the internal resistance to prompt against bulk transfer.

So necessarily, faster rate of drying is attained when all the time the moisture content of the inlet air is maintained at its minimum.

7. Air flow rate

It is the third parameter in the operating category.

For efficientfluidization to take place, it is necessary to control air flow rate meticulously.

In general, achieving an efficient drying process requires mandatory optimization of the air flow rate.

What happens is that if the air flow rate is relatively fast, then chances are high the gas would not be heated to the necessary optimum level.

Processing in the material chamber

Processing in the material chamber

Again, if the flow is relatively slow, it becomes somewhat challenging for fluidization to occur.

In simple language:

An increase in gas velocity leads to increase in drying rate.

However, the rate should be at optimum, which is neither too fast nor too slow.

It thus implies that air flow rate doesn’t have any significant effect on particles that contain high internal resistance to transfer of moisture.

Clearly, you can see from these operating parameters that they play a critical role in determining the status of the final product.

Now let’s move on and look at the elements in the last category known as product parameters.

8. Batch size

Significantly, variations in batch size of the same material tend to affect the process of drying and granulation.

But it is also important to know that variations from solid state properties originating from batch sizes can modify the requirements of the formulation.

Material floading in fluid bed dryer granulator

Material floating in fluid bed dryer granulator

This is in addition to processing and product performance.

Nevertheless, the batch size should be small and augmented based on viability.

9.Moisture in the product

It is also a vital element under the category of product parameter that affects the FBD machine and ultimately influencing the final product.

Ideally, the moisture content of the fluidizing product tends to be one of the essential elements in the process variable of fluid bed drying.

So it happens that in the event that the moisture content in the product is too high, the bed becomes exceptionally wet hence de-fluidizing rapidly.

On the other hand, when the moisture in the product is relatively low, there is virtually no agglomeration that will happen.

Material in the product chamber

Material in the product chamber

The truth, however, is that the probable range of variation in moisture content is considerably constricted.

It thus means that it is a necessity to precisely control all the process parameters which affect the moisture content.

It is also vital to understand that the moisture in the product is at any moment dependent on wetting and evaporation.

Additionally, other product parameters also affect fluid bed dryer as well as the final product in one way or another.

They include; size, shape and the diameter of the particles.

The other one is the moisture content of the specific feed material.

Now it’s my hope you’ve known all these parameters on the basis of category and how they affect the equipment as well as the final product.

So let’s now shift gear and look at the types of fluid bed dryers available in the market.

Chapter 6: Types of Fluidized Bed Dryers

Let me tell you the truth:

In the market, we have several types of fluid bed dryers.

However, making a cost-effective and logical selection of this equipment depends on your familiarity with particular features the various models available.

You’ll find that in several instances, numerous types of this equipment may offer relatively more or less similar performance but at the same cost.

The fluidized bed dryers are categorized into conventional and modified fluidized bed dryers.

But then again, an important aspect worth noting is that not all the modified fluidized bed dryers are substantially better than the conventional ones regarding various elements.

All of them tend to vary when it comes to product quality, energy utilization as well as drug performance among others.

6.1. Conventional fluid bed dryer

So this is the first category of this equipment that we want to expound on.

Generally, the conventional fluid bed dryer refers to those that do not necessarily have modernized features.

In other words, these machines are effective only that they conform somewhat to conventional principles of operation.

In that case, they do not incorporate particular technological advancements that are relatively specific to the task in need.

What this means is that they are more effective when it comes to the general use of the equipment in drying the particles and not specific tasks like the modified FBDs.

Conventional fluid bed dryer

Conventional fluid bed dryer – Photo courtesy: Wikimedia

Some examples of conventional fluid bed dryers include

i. Batch FBD

ii. Semi-continuous FBD

iii. Well-mixed

iv. Continuos FBD

v. Plug FBD among others.

They have different features but tend to operate in a more or less similar manner.

Of course, conventional fluid bed dryers also have some operative features.

One of the significant features is that these types of fluid bed dryer can be multi-functional.

It means that this type of equipment is capable of providing drying function, cooling function, classification and sterilizingtasks among others in a single unit.

You see, this is an critical prospect given that the trend nowadays is to get particular equipment that can offer all these to prevent unnecessary inconveniences.

The other essential aspect of a conventional FBD is that it provides efficiency when it comes to processing without product deprivation.

So that when you use it in processing your grain particles you’re certain that ultimately you will get the high-quality final product.

The final product essentially will not have undergone any form of destruction during the process of drying that would compromise its quality.

This vitally happens because the conventional machines, mostly contain elements that tend to offer gentle fluidizing action.

This type of equipment also ideal because it is efficient, faster and easy to operate.

Also, it supports massive output such that it becomes easy to attain high levels of production.

What’s more is that the performance of conventional fluidized bed dryers is proven to be efficient, easy to clean, durable construction and requires low maintenance.

The only problem like I mentioned is that some are somehow challenging especially when it comes to offering specific tailor-made operations.

6.2. Modified fluid bed dryer

Ordinarily, for quite some time, the conventional fluidized bed dryers have been common in this particular sector.

However, they’ve not been as efficient as you’d expect, especially in the current era of technological advancements.

And to fill this gap, manufacturers have been working extensively to bring on board the various types of machines that match the current needs for better quality and more efficiency.

It is at this point that invention of the modified fluid bed dryer became handy.

Modified fluid bed dryer

Modified fluid bed dryer

What happens is that several types of modified fluid bed dryers are helping in overcoming the numerous challenges that the conventional ones encountered.

Actually, it is a good thing given that most of the conventional fluid bed dryers do not necessarily contain some components available in modified FBDs.

The most important thing to understand concerning this type of fluidized bed dryer is that the incorporate advanced technological elements.

Which in a significant way enhances their efficiency, speciality and production of better quality final products.

We have quite a lot of modified fluid dryers in the market.

You only need to understand what you’re sure would suit your specific needs.

Some of them include the following;

  • Spouted bed dryer
  • Heat pump dryer
  • Mechanically assisted bed dryer
  • Hybrid FBD
  • Pulsating FBD
  • Swirl fluidizers
  • Vibrated FBD
  • Recirculating FBD
  • Jetting FBD

From this list, you can detect that most of them are modified to conform to a specific task in the overall granulation process.

In fact, as the name suggests, they are substantially improved versions of the conventional fluidized bed dryers.

The good thing with most modified fluid dryers is that they are somewhat relatively easy to operate.

Most of these types of equipment also have durable construction, easy to clean, requires less maintenance and are highly effective.

And what’s more is the fact that they offer tailor-made features which makes it possible for you to attain the best results in this process.

Those are primarily the necessary details regarding the types of fluid bed dryers available in the market.

As I stated before, modified are ideal because they provide customized features.

This, however, does not imply that the conventional fluid bed dryers are not capable.

Of importance thou:

You need to understand the underlying concept between these two types of fluidized bed processors.

Chapter 7: Advantages and Disadvantages of Fluid Bed Dryers

This is arguably one of the best sections of this guide.

You know why?

It is simple; it discusses all the pros and cons of this equipment.

Basically, it helps you to get a more understanding of this machine and whether or not it is worth having in your processing plant.

Truth is:

Any machine must have its two sides. It doesn’t matter which side would supersede the other.

Therefore, without taking much of your time, let’s directly start with the advantages of this machine;

Advantages of Fluid Bed Dryers

Some of the main advantages of fluid bed dryer machines include the following:

· High efficiency in drying material

It is unquestionably one of the obviousbenefits of this equipment.

The efficiency emanates from the fact that this machine utilizes a unique working principle which ensures that the particles dry up individually.

Fluidize dryer process

Fluidize dyer process

What happens is that hot air surrounds the entire bed surface which holds the particles which is vital because it helps to increase the efficiency of the drying process.

What’s more is that this high efficiency also arises from the fact that there’s outstanding gas-particle constant.

It is this aspect that results in the high level of heat transfer rates that enhances this effect.

· Rapid and uniform drying

Apparently, this is also another advantage that makes this device worth purchasing.

The thing is, the conventional method of drying particles would not necessarily guarantee you of getting homogenous drying.

The fluid bed dryer, however, assures you of this uniformity when it comes to drying hence making it easy for you to get better quality granules.

Uniform drying of powderuniform drying of powder – Photo courtesy: All for Drugs

This arises from the fact that each particle is covered by hot gas of the same temperature making it possible to achieve it.

Moreover, the working principle of this machine also ensures you of faster drying rates which are vital especially as it helps in meeting your targets accordingly.

· Low capital and maintenance cost

It doesn’t necessarily imply that you’ll have to break your bank account to acquire this equipment.

Of course,prices vary from one fluid bed dryer to another depending on several factors.

But the truth, however – the cost is not to the extreme extent.

So it means that you can still find affordable options to select from when in need but still offer quality.

Furthermore, it is also cheaper to maintain this equipment.

One element that makes this possible is the fact that high-quality stainless steel materials are used to construct this machine.

Fluid bed dryer with a strainless steel structure

Fluid bed dryer with a stainless steel structure

It thus shows that elements such as dust pollution, corrosion and contamination among others would be a thing of the past.

You won’t strain much in maintaining this machine.

Also, with the many designs available, it becomes easy to modify it to suit your particular specifications that would solve your needs.

· Are available in different sizes and capacities

The truth is that every sector, whether pharmaceutical, research and development or food processing would require unique fluid bed dryer.

In each case, the design has to meet all the specific needs of the intended purpose.

The good thing is that manufacturers also have it in mind hence tend to produce a wide range of fluid bed dryers that meets the needs and standards of different uses.

Mini fluid bed processor

Mini fluid bed processor

This is vital because it helps in making sure that you easily access what you’re certain can help you to achieve your needs.

Furthermore, the different sizes and capacities are also an indication that you can purchase what fits within your budget.

So depending on your type of material, you can easily select the type of machine that suits its drying needs.

· Easy to operate and less labor intensive

An essential element regarding most of the fluid bed dryers is that you can transfer them from one location to the other.

Now the advantage that this aspect brings is that it makes it easy to handle the machine as well as reducing the need for much labor during operation.

What’s more is that you can as well find some that have a wheel which makes them highly portable and easy to transport.

It is for that reason that makes them a suitable choice especially for various laboratory needs and on-field research development projects.

· Ideal for products that are sensitive to heat

Ordinarily, some particles or granules damage fundamental components when put under intense heat to dry.

Therefore, the conventional modes of drying become unsuitable for such ingredients.

But on the other hand, the modified fluid bed dryers’ equipment tend to have sensors which are effective.


Powder – Photo credits: Yupik

This then enables the equipment to monitor the necessary parameters and detect any problem during the drying process.

It thus shows that you can be in control of the parameters that determine the quality of the final product even when there’s high rate of heat transfer.

· Final products don’t have hot spots

One of the significant concerns regarding fluid bed dryers is the hot spot on final products.

It is often as a result of direct contact between the products and the drying surface.

But the good thing with the fluid bed dryer is that most of its drying components are suspended within the drying chamber.

Also, you have the option of choosing the appropriate capacity of the fluid dryer to get an excellent mixture of both air and the granules.

What happens typically in various drying applications is that it’s difficult to use high temperatures given that it can destroy the product.

Fluid bed dryer, however, allows you to use high drying temperatures.

What’s more is that the unique working principle of the fluid bed dryer enables the equipment to dry thermolabile products.

Apparently, it is the fundamental reason fluidization tends to be too common in numerous pharmaceutical industries.

These are some of the significant advantages of this equipment.

So let’s also switch gears and look some of its shortcomings;

Disadvantages of Fluid Bed Dryer

Most definitely, you will experience some challenges from time to time whenever you’re using this particular equipment.

It is thus important to highlight a few shortcomings to give you a better understanding of what you would probably experience with this dryer that you won’t necessarilylike.

· Not ideal for drying organic solvents

You see, some particles contain an organic solvent.

So when the need to remove them in the drying process becomes quite cumbersome.

The organic solvents typically dissolve into the material hence making it somewhat difficult to get rid of them from the content using this equipment.

· The danger of fire explosion

It is also necessary to understand that this equipment tends to utilize a high level of hot air or gas.

Therefore, it makes it extremely dangerous to try and fluidize flammable or toxic materials.

Undoubtedly, the dangers of fire explosion or flammability will be high hence putting everyone around in jeopardy of the fire.

· High chances of electrostatic build up

Much movement would generate electrostatic charges.

Of course, this something that often happens when drying organic particles.

And in such cases, going for a modified bed dryer that comes with electrical earthing element becomes of significant use.

· High chances of attrition

Due to extreme temperature and airflow conditions that the materials are subjected to among others, this equipment enhances chances of attrition.

In the fluidized state, all the particles are subjected into a state of turbulence.

This increases the chances of the product reducing its strength or effectiveness ultimately.

What often happens is that in some cases, albeit such parameters can be put under control, it becomes difficult to monitor all of them.

Particles in turbulent motion

Particles in turbulent motion

So, in any case, there is a parameter that goes beyond control attrition, and even agglomeration, especially of finer particles, tend to occur.

· It is difficult to dry sticky particles using this machine

Ordinarily, the fluid bed dryer is dependent on fluidization principle.

As we all know, this principle calls for free movement of granules.

It thus suggests that it is quite difficult for sticky particles to move freely making it nearly challenging to use the fluid bed dryer machine.

Hence, it becomes unsuitable for dying sticky or adhesive materials.

· Needs increased gas handling and adjustments

A fluid bed dryer requires enhanced gas handling as a result of massive recirculation of exhausts gas that supports high thermal productivity.

This is actually one of the possible changes that you may need to adjust whenever you’re using this particular machine.

Exhaust gas leaving the system

Exhaust gas leaving the system

Some of the changes you’re likely to face when operating the fluidized bed dryer include poor fluidization and inconsistency in some product quality.

Also, you’re likely to experience the possibility of high pressure dropping from time to time which as well needs your consideration.

All these are some of the significant changes that you will likely encounter intermittently as you operate this equipment.

And for that reason, they need your immediate attention to prevent cases of inconveniences, poor product quality and inefficiencies.

Chapter 8: Key Technical Specifications of a Fluid Bed Dryer

All fluid bed dryer equipment have different specifications depending on wide-ranging factors.

Remember, whenever you’re buying any machine, it is important to pay attention to the technical specifications.

In this section, I want us to look at some of the major technical specifications which make up this equipment.

With this, you’ll know your unique manufacturing needs in any material processing.

We’ll also understand the fundamental roles that they play.

And, in what aspect they affect the efficiency of the machine as well as the quality of the final product.

Here we go;

· Production capacity

This is an essential element that you need to find out from the start.

The truth is that production capacities vary from one fluid bed dryer to another.

Actually, the size of the material container and other specifications are what determine the capacity of this equipment.

Nonetheless, the production capacity of this equipment can be as large as 250kg.

It all depends on the particular machine application.

Technical specification of fluid bed dryer

Technical specification of a fluid bed dryer

At the same time, you also need to look into the total volume of the container.

In reality, this is just the available space within this container for placing the granules or powder.

Typically, you’ll realize that a fluid bed dryer with a relatively large product container volume tends to have higher production capacity.

But you must understand that this correlation is only applicable assuming all other parameters remain constant.

· The volume of air flow

This is also an essential specification to look into in this equipment.

By now it should be quite evident to you that fluidizatio nutilizes air in converting particles into dynamic fluid-like condition.

The correlation here is that higher rate of air flow results in a faster rate of fluidization.

Interestingly, the aspect of air flow volume goes hand in hand with fluid bed dryer compressor.

You can’t talk about one without mentioning the other.

Air blowing up particles

Air blowing up particles

In most cases, you’ll find these air compressors in different designs and configurations.

However, the particular type of air compressor in your fluid bed dryer will undoubtedly depend on the overall capacity of the equipment.

Also, you need to know the power consumption of the compressor will also vary on the basis of its size or capacity.

· Power consumption

You also need to know at least the power that the bed dryer consumes on average.

On the same note, you should also be aware of the many power components integrated with this equipment such as compressors, heaters, and blowers.

Knowing the average power consumption of this equipment majorly revolves around two aspects; the specific type of machine and the compatibility of the equipment with mains from the power source.

In fact, any form of incompatibility may be disastrous to your equipment.

· Electric heater

Here’s the bottom-line when it comes to fluid bed dryer electric heater;

You must get equipment that has an effective heater which also has the right heating capacity; nothing short.

Motor and other electrical parts

Motor and other electrical parts

Apparently, the heater is the component that dries the air emanating from the compressor which the blower later directs to the bed dryer fluidization chamber.

You need to be careful when evaluating the performance of an electric heater.

For instance, ideal temperature range and rate of power consumption are some of these critical aspects.

· Blower

A blower in the fluid bed dryer refers to the component which pushes air into the fluidization chamber.

What happens is that when you have a blower which is efficient,you’ll attain rapid fluidization and material processing.

More often, you need to find out the number of revolutions per minute as well as power consumption when analyzing ideal blower.

It is also vital to ensure that the blower provides the correct amount of air per hour.

It plays an essential role in determining the rate of fluidization process.

Thus you must ensure that you look into such specific details if at all you would wish to attain the best out of this air blowing device.

· Electric motor

The other essential thing that you have to know is the precise specifications of the motor that the fluid bed dryer uses.

This is the thing:

For a blower to rotate fully at the appropriate speed that guarantees maximum fluidization, the electric motor has to be powerful.

Material rotates and air is blown in

Material rotates as air is blown in

Mostly, the electric motor is the device that enables the movement of any part within the machine by generating sufficient power.

But you also need to know that when it comes to analyzing electric motor for this equipment, rotation speed and power consumption should be your key focus.

Ordinarily, the power consumption is always in Kw whereas rotation speed is in revolutions per minute.

· Spraying mechanism

It is an essential specification to consider especially when it comes to fluid bed dryers engineered for various material processing procedures.

Nonetheless, the type of spraying mechanism to use will also be dependent on the particular application of the equipment.

Different fluid bed spraying mechanism

Different fluid bed spraying mechanism

So you better be specific when it comes to the spraying mechanism.

Additionally, you can always change the position of the spray nozzle whenever you deem it fit for the nature of your application.

· Dimensions and weight

This is an aspect that you can never take lightly when it comes to selecting the fluid bed dryer equipment.

You see, you’ll be working in a confined space.

So you need to ensure that the particular equipment you’re selecting has the size that can fit into space.

Also, you need to have it mind that the technicians operating the machine will also require adequate space to facilitate movement across the room.

Furthermore, the overall weight of this equipment is also a paramount concern that you should have in mind.

Getting all these information will make it easy for you to ultimately choose the specific machine that suits your requirements.

· Control system

The control system is unquestionably one of the most important features to look into especially in the modified fluid bed dryers.

It is an important element since it plays a significant role in how you’ll operate the machine and controlling its different parameters.

 Motor and other electrical parts

Automatic control interface

The control system consists of elements such as touch screen panel, PLC and HMI among others.

It is this system that enables you to get and relay commands to the equipment.

Nevertheless, it is the control system that assists in alerting you in case of any emergency incidences hence helping you to respond as fast as possible.

So it is also vital to make sure that this system is well integrated with all other components of this machine to enhance efficiency.

Chapter 9: Multifunctional Fluid Bed Dryers

Ordinarily, fluid bed processors tend to be multifunctional. This necessarily implies that they offer more than just a single function in material processing.

Most commonly, multifunctional fluid processors often have the capability of executing:

   i. Blending

  ii. Granulating

 iii. Drying

 iv. Coating functions

Many manufacturers of modern fluidized bed dryers always try to ensure that they produce equipment that can discharge several functions.

The importance of this first of all is unquestionable convenience.

Seemingly, a multifunctional machine will make it possible for you to perform all the functions accordingly and conveniently.

In this section, we want to expound more regarding the different multifunctional fluid dryers available in the market.

So that it becomes easy for you to understand the one that is vital in your particular applications;

9.1. Fluid bed dryer granulator machine

This is one of the most commonly used multipurpose equipment for material processing, especially in pharmaceutical industries.

Mixing, drying, and granulation is all conducted on this same machine thus making it among the top and most preferred equipment in the processing industry.

Like any other top-notch processing equipment, this machine also has several parts that help significantly in increasing efficiency and attaining desirable final product.

Fluid bed dryer granulator machine

Fluid bed dryer granulating machine

Nonetheless, some of its major parts may differ from those in other machines depending on the different design options.

Some of these different top components include:

  • Product container
  • Gas distribution
  • Blinders spray system
  • Gas inlet chamber

You see, Fluid bed dryer granulator machine can execute three major types of spray granulation; top, bottom and side spray coatings.

Top spray granulation, in this case, involves spraying active ingredients on the fluid bed dryer to form the homogeneity of granules.

Bottom spray coating on that other hand involves separating granules from one another while suspended.

In some other cases, it is known as air suspension coating.

And then the side spray primarily involves coating using a high for content.

Attaining the side spray coating requires charging powder and spray binder simultaneously.

Other than the functions mentioned above, this unit also performs a wide range of tasks including drying of granules and wet powder.

        i. Features of fluid bed dryer granulating machine

Other than being a multipurpose machine this equipment also has some outstanding features.

It has two sets of valves that interact automatically hence suspending the powder or granule particles continuously.

Additionally, its cleanliness is secure given that its inlet air is filtered using a final filter.

Again, it meets all the specific cGMP regulations and other standardizations policies.

Moreover, it features a unique control system with intelligent touch screen panel for controlling various processing actions.

9.2. Fluid bed dryer and coating machine

This is the other ideal multi-purpose equipment available in the market.

It plays more or less the same function as the fluid bed dryer granulator machine.

This is regarding the top, bottom and side spray coatings.

The interest of the designers of this machine was to ensure that it offers maximum flexibility in integrating the equipment for various applications.

A fundamental aspect of this equipment is that it has several components, but it is relatively easy to set up.

Also, you can also find it in both standard and custom designs, which is imperative since it makes sure you get what you indeed need.

Fluid bed dryer and coater

Fluid bed dryer and coater

Typically, this equipment is used for drying, granulation, and coating of pellets or powders.

In most cases, this equipment is used in various R&D projects, education purposes and other demonstration needs.

It is also common in most pharmaceutical and chemical industries, especially those that deal withmassive volume production.

In the food industry, this machine comes in handy in processing and drying instant food powder.

Its features are epic making it stand out in this industry as one of the best machines that offer high efficiency and better final product quality.

First, it stands firm on a table or wall-mounted thus ensuring that it is stable during material processing.

Furthermore, it allows for nitrogen recirculation mostly for materials that tend to be relatively sensitive to oxygen.

Also, it facilitates environmental requirements and drying of large volumes of organic solvents.

This equipment also provides for easy in the process filling and discharging operation.

You can also monitor and control all the critical parameters of material processing from the systematic control panel.

So necessarily, this is an essential industrial machine to consider if you’re looking for an effective multi-functional fluid bed dryer.

9.3. Fluid bed granulator and coater with drying functionality

The name alone is a clear indication that this is a multifunctional fluidized bed dryer.

It is somewhat unique and of established technology and clear solutions.

This equipment is unquestionably more effective than most common machines that offer coating and drying functions in the industry.

Fluid bed dryer, granulator and coater

Fluid bed dryer, granulator and coater

As one of the high-end models, it is certain that it integrates multiple fluid bed processes which include:

  ii. Top spray granulating

 iii. Bottom spray pelleting

  iv. Tangent spray coating

The good thing about this is that makes it possible for the equipment to attain both economic and technological benefits in single processing.

Fluid bed granulator and coater with drying functionality equipment has a superb dryer.

It also comes with a granulator that meets different specifications suitable for material processing.

Its intelligent control system is excellent when it comes to sending and receiving commands that facilitate material processing.

Additionally, this machine gives you the option of choosing the specific type of spray nozzle to use since it comes with a variety of them.

It is also used in various pharmaceutical applications, chemical and food processing industries in drying different elements.

Primarily, these are some of the outstanding multifunctional fluid bed dryers that are recommended for such purposes.

The most important thing that you need to know is making sure that you assess every aspect of the equipment before purchasing.

It is necessary because it helps in increasing your chances of obtaining the most suitable machine for your personal needs.

Chapter 10: Fluidized Bed Dryer Applications in Industries

Fluid bed dryer is drying equipment just like the name suggests.

This machine dries a wide range of materials including granules, powder, plastics, tablets, fertilizers and foodstuff among others.

Due to the many advantages that I have mentioned so far, it is a popular accessory in many industries.

And, that’s what I am going to discuss here.

As a matter of fact, fluid bed dryer has really transformed processes in the bulk processing industry.

This equipment stands out as a reliable and multi-functional processor that can complete a wide range of crucial industrial tasks.

Continue reading on to learn the main applications of fluid bed dryer equipment:

1. Fluid Bed Dryer Pharmaceutical industry

It is unquestionably the most prominent industry where the fluid bed dryer is used in carrying out different tasks.

Apparently, most of these machines are often designed to help in pharmaceutical applications.

The first application in this industry is drying granules when producing tablets.

Making tablets from powder

Making tablets from powder

Ordinarily, tablets are a mixture of different compounds, and you’ve seen, they’re always available as dry materials.

They use this particular equipment in making them dry and solid.

So that they can last for quite some time and even transport them without melting.

Secondly, this machine helps in mixing, granulation and drying of materials in pharmaceutical industries.

What happens is that this machine plays a multi-functional role.

It is what enables it to execute all these multiple functions simultaneously.

Again, still in the pharmaceutical sector, it is used in coating particles after a slight modification or adjustment of some critical components and functions.

As you can see, this equipment plays wide-ranging functions in pharmacy production making it one of the most critical machines in this industry.

2. Chemical industry

It is also another sector where this equipment is mostly used for various functions.

In fact, just like in the pharmaceutical industry, this equipment is also used in the drying of chemical particles.

Remember some chemical particles can only be available to the end user in a solid dry state.

So this machine has to dry them to the precise required condition.


Moreover, the fluid bed dryers are also used in chemical industry to spray granulation for converting liquids into moulds that are dust-free.

This machine also helps in crystallization of liquid melts in the chemical industry as well as re-drying of the centrifugal wet particles.

In most cases, this happens after mechanical dehydration.

3. Food preparation industry

Food is one of the leading consumables in the world.

It thus becomes a necessity for various companies in this sector first to ensure the safety of their products in all aspects.

Ordinarily, food preparation companies will always want to make sure that the products have a relatively long shelf life.

And it is where this equipment becomes handy.

One way of guaranteeing that food product shall have a longer shelf-life is by making it dry.

In fact, food’s shelf-life is more than just drying.

You’ll realize that several processes come to play in making sure that food is safe and can last for long without contaminating.

Some of the phases of food preparation using this machine include heating, drying, roasting, sterilization and the eventual cooling.

As you can see, it performs more than simple moisture reduction.

Food processing industry

Food processing industry – Photo courtesy: Coca Cola Company

So in this case, this machine is appropriately used in making food product fit for consumption and help in reducing its chances of contaminating.

Secondly, still in the food industry, the fluid bed dryer is helpful in coloring different food products using the coloring agents.

Probably, you’ve seen some food coloration and wonder how they came to be in the food product.

This is one of the machines that is used in making that coloring you see possible.

Again, this equipment is also used in food preparation industry to determine the taste of the food product.

What happens is that this machine allows the product to pass through different compartments at different temperatures.

Also, other parameters are set that would ensure the particular taste is attained by the time the entire process is over.

4. Fertilizer industry

Typically, fluid bed dryers are primarily used in the production of large-scale inorganic fertilizers.

Some of these fertilizers include magnesium, calcium, potash and nitrate among others.

The application of this machine in the production of fertilizer is more or less similar to that in the chemical industry.

Fertilizer manufacturing industry

Fertilizer manufacturing industry

In most instances, this equipment helps in mixing, granulation and drying of the different compounds which form the fertilizer.

So that by the end of the entire process it becomes easier for the end user to get high quality and usefulfertilizer product that’s also safe.

5. Dairy industry

The fluidized bed dryer is useful in drying milk for purposes of producing instant milk powder.

I won’t necessarily go into details of this process at the moment.

However, you should understand that this equipment has different components and compartments that makes it possible to turn milk into powder.

Dry milk powder

Dry milk powder

This same machine is also useful when it comes to crystallization of the milk.

It is vital as it helps in attaining the best results from this product.

We also have other areas where the application of this equipment tends to be apparent and compelling.

Some of these industries include metallurgical and dyes among others.

Basically, the machine plays a fundamental role in all these industries.

Specifically, this is seen when it comes to drying, cooling, accumulation, granulation, and veneering of particulate materials.

Hopefully, you now know the specific industries where this equipment is used, which I bet you possibly didn’t know.

So let’s get to the next chapter and find out arguably the best fluid bed dryer manufacturer recommended by experts.

Chapter 11: SaintyCo Fluid Bed Dryer Technologies

So now you’ve known possibly all the fundamental information regarding fluid bed dryer equipment.

And now you want to get one for various tasks; be it in your laboratory, research and development project or even company.

Do you feel like it can be confusing to get the most suitable one for your specific needs?

Maybe yes, maybe no.

It all depends on what you want and how you look for it.

Listen, the only secret when it comes to selecting the best fluid bed dryer is by getting a reliable and reputable manufacturer.

Nothing short of this, trust me!

For this reason, one of the manufacturers that I strongly front for this type of machine is SaintyCo.

You see, this company has a speciality in this equipment.

It has been in this sector for a significant period and hence establishing itself as one of the most reliable and reputable manufacturers.

Actually, for many years, SaintyCo has been supplying fluid bed processors for

  • Drying
  • Granulating
  • Blending
  • Coating for pharmaceutical and other industries.

It also produces a wide range of fluid bed dryers hence making it easy for you to find the best one that suits all your particular needs.

They include small capacity systems engineered and suitable for research and development and industrial size plants essential for batch production.

One of the outstanding features of SaintyCo fluid bed dryer is its multi-function capability.

You see.

This is an indication that it can easily integrate tangent spray coating, top spray granulating and bottom spray pelleting.

In general, SaintyCo provides five series of fluid bed dryer equipment.

Let’s have a quick look at these machines;

1. Mini DPL Lab Fluid Bed Dryer

This particular machine is mostly a modular and robust multifunctional lab equipment.

It is common for multiple applications including drying, granulation, layering and coating.

One of the most exciting features of this unit is its control system with a touchscreen display.

It is important because it makes it easy to control the whole fluidization process.

Mini DPL Lab Fluid Bed Dryer

Mini DPL Lab Fluid Bed Dryer

Nevertheless, it has an easy discharge and negative pressure system.

This makes it one of the most efficient machines to use for various tasks.

What’s more is that this SaintyCo machine is ideal for a wide range of laboratory applications as well as research and development tasks.

Mini DPL Lab Fluid Bed Dryer is also affordable especially for projects that require R&D ordinary and customs designs.

2. Mini FBG Laboratory Fluid Bed Processor

It is also another Fluid bed dryer from SaintyCo with some of the top-notch features you can ever find around.

Strategically placed top spray granulation as well as bottom spray coating operations are some of the epic functions the features provide.

Something exciting with this unit is that it is engineered and machined accurately conforming to the strict cGMP specifications.

Mini FBG Laboratory Fluid Bed Processor

Mini FBG Laboratory Fluid Bed Processor

It is vital because it guarantees efficiency and hygienic handling of material during processing.

This particular unit provides suitable productivity with a structure that is relatively easy to dismantle and re-assemble.

Of course, Mini FBG Laboratory Fluid Bed Processor unit is also suitable for wide-ranging R&D and laboratory applications.

The other good thing about it is that you can find it in both standard and custom designs.

3. DPL Fluid Bed Dryer Granulator and Coater

As the name indicates, this is one of the best SaintyCo units that offer several economic and technological advantages.

Its outstanding feature is the uniquely engineered third generation top spray.

This equipment is completely integrated with tangent spray coating, top spray granulation as well as the bottom spray pelleting or coating.

DPL Fluid Bed Dryer Granulator and Coater

DPL Fluid Bed Dryer Granulator and Coater

It also features an intelligent control system for easy operation, and it offers consistent and predictable drying, granulation and pelleting.

In general, this equipment is easy to operate, offers high efficiency as well as less and affordable maintenance costs.

What’s more is that this SaintyCo’s DPL Fluid Bed Dryer Granulator and Coater equipment meets all the CGMP requirements. And you can find it in both custom and standard designs.

4. FBG Fluid Bed Dryer Granulator

This Fluid bed dryer from SaintyCo is practically a rugged, modular and accurate machine that offers high reliability and efficiency in drying processes.

A great aspect of this particular equipment is that its development emanated from SaintyCo’s in-house research and testing.

This is in addition to other pertinent foreign technologies.

FBG Fluid Bed Dryer Granulator

FBG Fluid Bed Dryer Granulator

The FBG Fluid Bed Dryer Granulator is essentially a multi-functional device that offers consistent batch to batch processing.

Again, this unit features an integrated high-pressure air.

This is essential because it makes it possible for this specific equipment to atomize binder solution thus forming consistent granule particle sizes.

The other thing is that this machine is capable of accomplishing granulation and drying in just a single step.

Other than being cGMP compliant, SaintyCo’s FBG Fluid Bed Dryer Granulator is also available in both standard and custom designs.

5. FG Fluid-Bed Dryer

This is also the other fluid bed dryer from SaintyCo.

It is equipment engineered on the basis of extensive research and integration of SaintyCo research, innovations and testing in fluidization processes with foreign technologies.

It features a fully automated PLC system and other numerous parameters for controlling the printing and drying processes.

FG Fluid-Bed Dryer

FG Fluid-Bed Dryer

What’s more is that optimization of this unit is entirely for pharmaceutical, chemical and food processing industries.

Nevertheless, it also allows for flexible and adjustable parameters for processing different types of particle materials.

The other significant thing about this machine is its ergonomic design which makes it easy to handle and operate during material processing.

It also comes with an intelligent control system which further enhances its ability to process particles efficiently.

Furthermore, it is cGMPcompliant and allows for systematic selection of components.

It helps fundamentally in providing consistent, fast and homogenous material drying.

And as usual, like any other unit in this series, FG Fluid-Bed Dryer is also available in both standard and custom designs.

From this brief description of these machines, it is quite clear that SaintyCo is indeed one of the best fluid bed dryer’s manufacturers to seek.

Other than offering high quality, standard and custom design equipment, they also specialize in providing different parts of this machine.

So if you’re in need of this type of equipment, you shouldn’t look any further.

Choose SaintyCo, and all your needs will be a thing of the past.

Chapter 12: User Requirement Specification (URS) for Fluid Bed Dryer

1. Objective:

The objective of this document is to establish the documented evidence that the ordered equipment or machinery should be complied according to those parameters which were indicated in the user requirement by the end user.

The URS describes the qualifying factors of the equipment supply that must be satisfied.

2. Scope:

The scope of this document is to provide maximum information about the Fluidize Bed Dryer (FBD) 150 Kg Capacity,to the supplier or manufacturer that they will analyze the user requirements and will incorporate the changes and modifications in standard equipment according to the user requirements.

This URS will be recognized as an integral part of the procurement agreement with the selected equipment vendor.

The equipment supplier or manufacturer will abide by the information and conditions set forth by this document as well as the standard purchasing terms and conditions of the Hinucon.

This URS will describe the necessary interfaces for the proper integration of the equipment.

The equipment supplier or vendor has specific responsibilities as outlined by the Validation Plan and this document.

3.  Application /Principle:

The Fluidize Bed Dryer (FBD) is used for rapid and efficient drying of powdered excipients.

The material to be dried is loaded into the container receptacle/bowl of the FBD.

A typical drying process involves the following steps;

1- Preheat (To prevent material from sticking to the sides of FBD)

2- Loading

3- Drying (Fluidizing)

4- Cool down (Heating off)

5- Unloading


The receptacle has a fine SS mesh at the bottom (200 mesh)

The air used for drying/fluidizing is successively filtered through a Pre filter (EU 4- filter grade, 10 micron rating, 95% efficiency), Fine (EU 7 – grade, 3 micron rating, 99% efficiency) and finally through HEPA filters (EU 13-grade, 0.3 micron rating, 99.997% efficiency).

Hot filtered and dehumanized air is passed at high velocity from the bottom of the FBD bowl/receptacle through the process material.

Because of the high velocity of air, the process material is fluidized up to a certain height in the FBD chamber so that an equilibrium is maintained between the number of particles going up and number  of particles coming down under the influence of gravity.

The fluidizing air results into a very efficient heat and mass transfers.

The operating capacity of the FBD shall be such that it can efficiently drya mass of 100 Kg to 150Kg.

The control system should be simple and user friendly, with batch recipes easily loaded and saved, and completed batch information printed in an easy to read format meeting with required standards.

The drying activity must be performed in strict conformance with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP).

4. Capacity:

The maximum operational capacity required is 150 Kg.

The bulk density of the processing material is 0.4 to 0.9 gm/cc.

5. Room Dimensions:

  • Length * Width * Height to be identified by supplier/ manufacturer.

6. Operational /Process Requirements:

  • Electrical/Steam Heated Equipment.
  • Efficient and thorough drying through uniform bed temperature distribution.
  • Required bed temperature ranges from 320C to 600
  • Dehumidified supplied air system for product fluidization.
  • Bulk transfer system from dispensing bin to high shear mixer.
  • Wet mass transfer system through online wet mill from high shear mixer to FBD trolley.
  • Dried granule transfer system to FBD trolley to double cone blender through dry sizing mill.
  • The entire system from material loading to high shear mixer to double cone blender must be integrated and should be as one line operation.
  • Effective, Safe and reliable operational control for both Aqueous and Solvent based systems.
  • Adequate controls and devices to control against vapors and explosions. Robust construction to contain the explosion.
  • Minimum process loss of material.
  • Effective feedback control system for the critical process parameters such as Temperature Set point and air flow etc.
  • Discharging / Unloading the FBD via lifting device.
  • Moderate to frequent product change overs with subsequent Cleaning cycle ‘Clean in Place’ and ‘Wash in place’.
  • Products to be processed include a wide range of fine powders like dextrose, maltose etc.
  • Explosion proof and flame proof construction and operation.
  • Noise free operation or less than 85 dBA.
  • Filter bag with intermittent shaking mechanism without any interruption of drying cycle (for example Twin chamber shaking Filter).
  • Filtration of air inside the FBD to prevent loss of product ‘up the stack’ and to protect the external environment from contamination. Filter bag system required as suspended from the filter chamber of FBD and periodically shaken to dislodge the powder dust accumulated during fluidization. The fabric used should be FDA compliant and antistatic in nature.
  • Easy to change filters; remove, clean and reinstall. To be provided as required for each of the therapeutic classification of products to ensure filter dedication.
  • Filtration of the supply air to the FBD using prefilters and HEPA filters (as specified above) required ensuring only clean air comes in product contact. These filters located in the supply air unit along with the heating and cooling coils with absolute SS 316L housing. The filter and air handling unit to be kept in technical area, outside the GMP area.
  • The Fluid Bed Dryer to be placed inside the GMP area shall have GMP compliant construction and finishes, made of SS 316 L, mirror polished smooth surface, with no hard to clean areas. All pneumatic seals shall be subject to compliance as well.
  • Filtration of air exiting form the FBD is required to prevent Environmental Contamination. The preferred systems include;
    • HEPA systems with ‘bag in’ and ‘bag out’ feature for operator exposure protection.
    • Closed loop recovery systems to capture the fluids and products for subsequent disposal.
  • The receptacle shall be provided with the sampling port, to collect the dried material sample for in process testing as and when required.
  • Powder leakage sensor to be provided at the exhaust end and shall be integrated with the Alarm and Equipment Auto trip system.
  1. Key Features Required:

GMP Compliant

Equipment designed to ensure compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices and the Latest Technology.

The Equipment body and all product contact parts and surfaces to be made of SS 316 L mirror polished.

All equipment seals coming in product contact shall be made of pharma grade and non reactive material.

The filter housing of pre and HEPA filters to be made of SS 316 L.

The equipment must be provided with two extra Receptacle containers withSS trolley.

The trolley shall be provided with SS body Caster wheels. The mesh sieve provided at the receptacle base shall be made of 200 mesh SS Sieve and should be easily dismantled for effective cleaning.

Components can be easily dismantled, cleaned thoroughly and assembled in quick time.

Stair cased Platform shall be provided for easy reach to high top of the equipment for effective cleaning

All contact parts of SS 316 L should be provided with manufacturer certificate.

Operational Requirements:

  • The system shall operate with a minimum of operator’s involvement. Operation shall be safe from operator and environment standpoint.
  • The system shall be operated locally at the equipment itself.
  • Control system required Manual/Automatic.
  • Data Logging of Alarming, warning, power loss or any such abnormality should be present.

Power Failure Recovery:

In the event of a power failure, the system shall protect product against damage.

The system shall stop in a safe mode automatically upon loss of electricity, air or other major utility and will require operator intervention to restart.

Emergency Stop:

The system shall have Emergency stop mechanism designed to stop all equipment operation immediately.

The Emergency Stop Switch shall be located prominently and at easy accessible area as required by Safety Standards.

Alarms and Warnings:

  • Critical Alarms:

Shall take automatic action to shut down the equipment and notify the operator.

The operator shall be required to acknowledge the alarm before alarm can be reset and system restarted.

Once alarm is reset, the operator may restart the system.

  • Process Critical:

Shall notify the operator and put the system in hold state to protect against any product damage.

Process critical warnings shall sound the alarm horn and shall illuminate the indicator but allow the system to continue to operate.

The operator shall be required to acknowledge the warning in order to silence the alarm horn, and the alarm indicator shall be extinguished when the warning condition disappears.

  • Non Critical Warnings:

Shall notify the operator and take no further action.

Non critical warnings shall sound the alarm horn, and illuminate the alarm indicator but allow the system to continue to operate.

The operator shall be required to acknowledge the warning in order to silence the alarm horn, and the alarm indicator shall be extinguished when the warning condition disappears.

The Fluid Bed shall have the following alarms and warnings at least;

Alarm or Informational Message

Control Systems for Production Processes:

Process steps to be individually configured, critical parameters to be automatically monitored such as drying cycle, filter bag shaking etc and the process being performed to be screen displayed, documented and printable.

Product wise recipe storage and recipe management provision required.

  • Pressure shock resistance against explosive over pressure as may result due to powder dust and vapour generation especially where organic solvents used at 2.2 bar.
  • Explosion proof and Flame proof operation.
  • Safe earthing present with interlocking arrangement.
  • Operational controls: Electrical / Micro-processor / PLC system
  • User Friendly Control
  • PLC controlled (with three level password protection)
  • CFR 21 Part 11 compliance
  • Noise level should be minimum or less than 85 dBA.
  • CIP and WIP: TheFBD shall be cleaned in place using an automated sequence to be initiated by the operator. An existing centralized CIP system shall be utilized.CIP system should be design with Tap water (Treated Water) connection for general washing and Purified Water connection for rinsing.
  • Validation services including comprehensive IQ / OQ/ DQ /PQ &Product Contact surface area documentation.

Data and Security:

Controls provided with Data Collection systems intended for use in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products shall be required to meet 21 CFR Part 11 compliance.  The supplier shall stipulate the methods by which this criterion is met.

User Interfaces Requirements:

Operator interface access levels

Frequency of data point collection

Hardcopy/electronic data collection requirements

Compliance with 21CFR Part 11

Data retention time on the system

Data storage media

Access to all Input/output values and system status bits shall be provided through a data communication link.

Security for data and operator access is provided by (User ID/Password.

User Interface with Supervisors and Operators

The CONTROL PLATFORM system shall include interfaces with the Operator and Supervisor that ensures easy, safe, and reliable operation.

An operator-interface panel shall be provided and mounted near the equipment or on the equipment.

This panel shall provide the necessary switches, indicators, and devices to operate the fluid bed system.

The following shall be displayed:

  1. Recommended
    • Inlet Temperature
    • Exhaust Temperature
    • Product Temperature
    • Inlet Airflow
    • Product Screen Delta Pressure
    • Filter Chamber Delta Pressure
    • Alarms and Warnings
    • System status (ready, running, etc.)
  2. Optional
    • Product Temperature

The PLC/OIT system shall include interfaces with Supervisors to ensure easy, safe and reliable configuration of the Fluid Bed System.

Make of PLC should be Siemens or Omron.

The following shall be accessible only to Supervisors:

  • Security Configurations
  • Alarm Set points

Language and Display Requirements:

Information shall be displayed in English.

System of Measurement to be used is Metric System or S.I.

Interface with Other Equipments:

The PLC/OIT system shall include interfaces with the User’s control system to facilitate automatic operation and configuration.

A Modem communications port shall be provided.

A high-speed configuration/monitoring connection shall be provided.

Security Levels:

Role Based Access Control to be provided upto three levels i.e.

Operator, Supervisor and Administrator, with following specific roles identified;

Operator: The machine operator is authorize to turn the system ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’, using his individual assigned User ID and password to access the system, and selects the specific product recipe to run the equipment as per defined operating parameters.

Supervisor/Technician: The electronics technician and the production supervisor are authorized to access the system for operator privileges as well as for additional privileges which include the Adjustments in the Recipe, as and when required.

They are authorized to access the system through their individual User ID and password.

Administrator: The system administrator has unlimited access to the software.

He is authorized to create and Delete any Recipe and provide user authentication to specific operators, supervisors and technicians.

Administrator can track the user activities on the system and maintains the full audit trail.

Data Collection:

Electronic process printout, Historical Trending and interface to company network

The following shall be recorded:

  • Inlet Temperature
  • Exhaust Temperature
  • Inlet Airflow
  • Product Screen Differential Pressure
  • Filter Chamber Differential Pressure
  • Solution Flow Rate
  • Alarms and warnings
  • System status
  • Product Temperature
  • (In Chamber) Pressure indication

8.Intended Operating Environment:

The FBD will operate in a GMP environment, with air quality requirements of Class D.

The area kept controlled for Temperature, Relative Humidity and Differential Pressure ranges as follows;

Temperature range:(22 + 3)0C

Relative Humidity:(50 + 5) %

Pressure Differential: -5 to -15 Pascal, with Air flow directed inwards to the process room

Lux Level: 500

9. Construction and finishes:

  • The equipment design, construction, finishes and installation shall in compliance with current Good manufacturing practices and shall not present any source of contamination and hard to clean areas.
  • FBD process equipment with operator platform and Clean room through- the-wall installation, for minimized processing space and simplified cleaning.
  • Product contact parts of FBD shall be made with SS 316-L with mirror polish, no traces of welding or hidden edges and all corner should be in radius.
  • All equipment seals should be made of pharma grade material, wherever coming into product contact. Seals and contact surfaces should be non additive and non absorptive.
  • Integrating processing machines at charging and discharging sides with 100%gas tight seals.
  • Spare Parts:

Two years manufacturer recommended spares parts with list as standard with equipment.

10. Safety Features required:

  • Emergency stop: The system shall have an emergency stop (E-Stop) mechanism designed to stop all physical movement of the equipment immediately. The E-Stop mechanism shall be located in easily accessible areas around the equipment as required by national and local safety standards.
  • Alarm & Warnings: The system shall take action automatically to shut the FBD down in case of critical condition (should sync with pressure gauges) and notify the operator. The operator shall be required to acknowledge the alarm before the alarm can be reset and the system restarted. Once the alarm is reset, the operator may restart the system.
  • Explosion Relief:Thesystem shall have adequate built-in feature for an explosion relief.

Based on the application, explosion protection may be required.  This can take form of:

  • Total containment and isolation (2.2 bar construction with quick acting valves) designed to ASME code, stamped and registered. or
  • Isolation and suppression (quick acting valves and chemical flame suppressants to prevent propagation of conflagration) designed to ASME code, stamped and registered or
  • Explosion venting to safe area through ducting (may require special design of the duct to contain the pressure build-up).
  • Explosion Proofing: Explosion proof and flame proof construction and finishes and certificate of conformance required (Example Atex Certification).Over pressure shock resistance required to mitigate any process related over pressures due to powder dust and/or organic solvent vapors.
  • All parts and drive should be properly covered.
  • Noise level should be minimum, below 85dBA.
  • All electrical& pneumatic wirings should be properly labeled and concealed (duly explosion proof)
  • The equipment design and operation should in compliance with ergonomic principles (minimize as low as reasonably practicable) repetitive movement, overreaching, twisting, manual handling etc.
  • RCD* should be installed within main electrical panel to reduce the risk of electrocution.

* RCD= Residual Current Device (Sort of circuit breaker/ tripping device).

11. Machine Labeling:

All machine components, operating switches and parts should be properly and clearly labeled in ENGLISH.

  1. Control System:
  • Control System must be Equipped with Latest Technology.
  • PLCcontrolledwith HMI (Preferably Siemens/Omron PLC)
  • Pro
  • cess visualization (preferably Citec) with HMI showing all process parameters and provision of recipe management.
  • Sufficient Recipe Storage Capacity to be provided (at least 30 product recipes).
  • Software backup of PLC separately required in CD.
  • PLC system and back up should be in ENGLISH
  • LCD monitor and printer to be provided along with the system.
  1. Documents Required:

Two copies of following documents both in hard and soft (in designated format) shall be supplied by machine manufacturer as standard with or before machine shipment in English language only.

Exploded diagram

14.   Installation and Staff Training:

The following support activities are required after acceptance and delivery at owner site from trained and qualified engineers of machine manufacturers:

Installation, commissioning, operational and maintenance training, validation.

15.Fatory Acceptance Test (FAT):

Before the equipment shipment, our two engineers will perform FAT at the manufacturing site.

The FAT protocol will include construction, craftsmanship, and operational tests, including change over.

The machine manufacturer shall notify the Hilton Pharma (Private) Limited at least 6 weeks in advance of the start of FAT and FAT protocol shall be submitted to review and to comment and/ or approve the FAT specifications.

If the FAT identifies areas of non-compliance, the manufacturer / supplier should provide a timetable for it completion.

Depending on the severity of the non-conformance Hilton reserves the right to repeat the FAT in part or complete, at the expenses of the manufacturer / supplier.

Upon satisfactory completion of the FAT, the equipment will be shipped to Hilton.

16.   Site Acceptance Test (SAT) :

Site acceptance test (SAT) will be performed by manufacturer engineers as per the agreed terms and condition.


Utilities requirements


As you’ve seen from this guide, it is important to understand the nitty-gritty of fluid bed dryer equipment.

Once you have the basic information about this machine, it becomes easier for you to make the right purchasing decisions.

I have explained everything in this fluid bed dryer buying guide.

So, you don’t have to be an expert in matters to do with fluid bed dryer equipment. With the information I have shared with you here, you can get the best fluid bed dryer on the market.

It’s simple – just read and understand every concept in this guide.

And, in case you have any question, feel free to contact us or leave a quick comment below.

We offer free consultations on fluid bed processor equipment.

Further reading:

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